You will be taken a photo tomorrow at 5.

Вас будут фотографировать, когда я войду в комнату.

You will be taken a photo when I enter the room.

Вас будут фотографировать, пока я буду пить кофе.

You will be taken a photo while I am drinking coffee.

Вас будут фотографировать с 2-х до 3-х.

You will be taken a photo from 2 till 3.

ТЕХНИКА РЕЧИ 1

Пример: Меня будут показывать по телевизору завтра с 2 до 5.

I will be shown on TV tomorrow from 2 till 5.

Will I be shown on TV tomorrow from 2 till 5?

I won’t be shown on TV tomorrow from 2 till 5.

1. Нас завтра будут кормить ровно в 5.

2. Вам будут посвящать стихи, пока я буду за вас работать.

3. Эту пьесу будут играть на сцене в тот момент, когда вы войдете в зал.

4. Утренние газеты будут разносить с 8 до 9.

5. Ужасные новости будут распространяться по городу, в то время как сотрудники нашей газеты будут праздновать ее 5-летний юбилей.

6. Фильм будет демонстрироваться с 8 до 11 вечера.

7. Спортсменов будут награждать вечером, после окончания матча, часов в 11.

8. За вас будут болеть, когда вы будете принимать участие в любительском забеге.

9. Вас будут уважать, пока вы будете воспитывать чужого ребенка.

10. Это вопрос будет обсуждаться завтра ровно в 12.

ИДИОМЫ И ФРАЗЕОЛОГИЗМЫ

· быть в изумлении – to be astonished

· быть сильно привязанным к кому-нибудь – to bee deeply attached to somebody

· валяться на солнце – to laze in the sun

· для разнообразия – for a change

· едва ли найдется страна – there is hardly a country in the world

· нет ничего лучше – there is nothing like

· ответить на телефонный звонок – to answer a phone call

· перемена обстановки – change of scene

· рано вставать – to be an early riser

· чем бы человек ни увлекался – no matter what kind of hobby a person has

ТЕХНИКА РЕЧИ 2

1. Я рано встаю и обычно просматриваю газеты за завтраком. Он просматривал газеты, когда его попросили ответить на телефонный звонок. Нет ничего лучше отдыха на море, где можно бездельничать с утра до вечера, валяться на солнце и лишь изредка просматривать газеты. Ты уже просмотрела утренние газеты? Он пообещал, что просмотрит газеты до того, как уйдет на работу. Я была изумлена, когда просмотрела газеты и обнаружила, что мой сенсационный материал так и не был напечатан.

2. Он сильно привязан к своим детям, поэтому все свои книги он посвящает именно им. Вам когда-нибудь посвящали стихи? Она призналась, что впервые в жизни ей посвятили такие чудные стихи. Она была изумлена, когда узнала, что эти знаменитые строки были посвящены ее прабабушке. Для разнообразия посвяти эти стихи своей первой учительнице.

3. Мы всегда рады видеть у себя в доме нового человека, чем бы он ни увлекался. Вы увлекаетесь рыбалкой? В молодости он увлекался бегом трусцой. Вам нужна перемена обстановки, и если вы увлекаетесь подводным плаванием, я вам советую обратиться в туристическую фирму.



4. Я часто показываю фокусы. Меня редко показывают по телевизору. Вам уже показали их коронный фокус? Вы уже показали свой коронный фокус этой рафинированной публике? Он поинтересовался, показал ли я уже свой знаменитый фокус. Меня, к сожалению, показали по телевизору до того, как я пришла с работы. Вас покажут по телевизору до того, как мы уйдем на работу? Он не рассчитывал, что его завтра покажут по телевизору. Этот фильм показывают по телевизору уже несколько месяцев. Когда вас показывали по телевизору? Этот фильм будут показывать по телевизору завтра в 5.

5. О нашей школе много говорят в городе. О нашей школе не говорили с тех пор, как о ней написали спорную статью в газете. О нашей школе буду говорить до тех пор, пока она будет существовать. Что сейчас говорят о вашей школе? Что говорили о нашей школе, когда вы включили радио? Что вы обычно говорите о нашей школе? О нашей школе будут говорить в тот момент, когда вы войдете в зал. Это впервые, что о нашей школе говорят по телевизору. О нашей школе скажут до того, как начнется программа новостей.

ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИЙ МИНИМУМ


бег трусцой – jogging

бездельничать – to idle; to do nothing

болеть за (кого-то) – to be a fan (of); to support

быть изумленным – to be amazed

великий – great

демонстрировать – to demonstrate

журнал – a magazine; a journal

забег – a round

играть на сцене – to act on the scene

именно – just; exactly, in particular

любитель (непрофессионал) – an amateur

любительский – amateur

обратиться в – to apply to

отдых на море – the rest at sea

плавание – swimming

по городу – over the town

подводное – underwater

посвящать – to dedicate to; to devote to

после окончания – after finishing

праздновать – to celebrate

принимать участие – to take part (in), to participate (in)



просматривать газеты – to look through, to run through newspapers

пятилетний юбилей – a five-year anniversary

разносить – to deliver

распространять – to spread

рафинированная публика – refined audience

ребенок – a child; an infant; a baby; a kidразг.

сенсационный материал – feature

сотрудник газеты – a contributor

спорный – arguable

статья – an article

стихи – poem(s)

строка – a line

существовать – to exist

так и – simply, just...

туристическая фирма – tourist agency

уважать – to respect, to have respect (for)

увлекаться – to be keen (on smth.); to take a fancy (to smb.)

уйти на работу – to leave for work

утренняя газета – morning newspaper

чудный – wonderful, marvellous

чужой (беспризорный ребенок) – a gutter-child



КЛЮЧИ.

Урок 1.

1. He often plays the fool.

2. Does he often play the fool in the evenings?

3. How often does he lose temper?

4. He never loses temper.

5. He usually gets out of bed on the wrong side and often loses temper on Mondays.

6. Why do you always see daylight?

7. He never works hard and usually plays the fool at work.

8. My husband hardly ever loses temper.

9. I get out of bed on the wrong side very often.

10. When do you usually lose temper?

11. Do you usually sleep for a long time? \ Do you usually sleep long?

12. I wake up at 7 o’clock every day.

13. What time do you usually get up?

14. They never wash themselves.

15. He takes a shower every day.

16. I always have a bath in the evening.

17. Sometimes we make breakfast on Sundays.

18. When do they have breakfast?

19. She seldom has dinner and never has supper.

20. Sometimes I have dinner at work, but not very often.

21. She always washes the dishes after breakfast.

22. Why do you never wash the dishes after dinner?

23. She cleans her room every Saturday. \ Every Saturday she cleans her room.

24. Do you always play the fool at work?

25. They never wash the dishes in the evenings, because they have supper at the restaurant fairly \ quite often.

Урок 2.

1. He is never cold in the mornings, because he always goes to work on foot.

2. We are usually very busy on weekdays as we go to work.

3. Why is he always so sad on Sundays? – He isn’t sad, he is just bored.

4. Do you often vacuum? – No, I don’t. I do it very seldom; I work every day, I am too busy at work and I am too tired, hungry and wicked in the evenings.

5. Are you pleased with me? – No, I am not pleased with you: you are too silly and self-assured.

6. Why do you wash and iron so seldom? – Because it’s bored.

7. He is always happy when he plays the fool.

8. She is very excited, because she doesn’t see daylight.

9. He is too self-assured and rather silly, that’s why he often loses temper.

10. She is very busy in the morning: she always takes a shower, makes the bed, makes breakfast, has breakfast, washes the dishes, cleans the room, does her hair, beautifies herself, gets dressed, gets changed and then she goes to work. She usually goes to work by bus, but sometimes she takes a taxi.

Урок 3.

1. She is a hard nut to crack.

2. Is he a big shot? – No, he isn’t. He is a student.

3. Are you an interpreter? – Yes, I am. And what about you?

4. He is a lawyer; he is always very busy both on weekdays and on his free days; generally speaking, he is a big shot and a man of his word as well.

5. Unfortunately, he is an absolute nothing. / He is an absolute nothing, I’m afraid.

6. Are you free in the evenings? – Yes, I’m. You know I am a student.

7. She is the life and soul of the party: she never loses temper, always sees daylight and plays the fool quite often; although she is a teacher/ she is a teacher though.

8. How often do you make dinner? – Never! My sister usually does it. You know I am a big shot and she is an absolute nothing! It’s just a joke, of course.

9. We are pensioners. We go to the cinema rather seldom, but we often watch TV in the evening.

10. What are you? – Frankly speaking, I am not a big shot, I am an ordinary nurse, but take my word for it – I am an expert at my job.

Урок 4.

1. He is always busy: he is an outstanding teacher and an excellent hard-worker.

2. Is he a sociable person? – Yes, he is very sociable. But unfortunately he is a failure, although he always works hard / he always works hard though.

3. You are a terrible bore, because you never play the fool.

4. He is a terrible newsmonger, an awful panic-monger and a horrible lickspittle. On the whole he is a nasty personality, that’s why I hardly ever mix with him at work.

5. Are they stay-at-homes? – Yes, they are terrible ones: they never go out anywhere.

6. Frankly speaking, I am not a man of courage at all. What about you?

7. She is reserved and sad. And on the whole she is a pessimist.

8. He is an outstanding personality! Such a clear head! Such a dreamer!

9. Pensioners are seldom dreamers.

10. He never works hard at work; he is an ordinary idler and a bore as well. On the whole he is an absolute nothing.

Урок 5.

1. Do your children often smile?

2. My grandpa is a terrible panic-monger: he never smiles and talks over his problems rather seldom.

3. His dad is so great! He always smiles and he is never angry with me.

4. Is your husband a scientist? – Yes, he is, that’s why he is at home so seldom: you know he works both on Saturdays and on Sundays.

5. Frankly speaking, your son isn’t a blockhead, he is just a real idler, although, to tell the truth he is bad at math.

6. He is late so often, so he almost always goes to work by taxi. – True! It is in his way!

7. Are you good at languages? – I think so. You see, I speak both English and Russian quite fluently. I am a journalist and generally speaking I am a sociable person.

8. Her cousin is a stay-at-home. She seldom goes even to see her relatives.

9. Your children always giggle at me, so it’s naturally, that I lose temper, especially in the evenings when I am tired after a hard working day.

10. My husband and I always quarrel and then make it up...That’s our life!

Урок 6.

1. Frankly speaking, she is a fascinating woman and a hard-worker as well. By the way, she can cook and, to my mind, she cooks every day.

2. My dad is an outstanding personality: he is a great optimist and always hopes for the Best.

3. Can you drive a car? – No, I can’t, but my husband can.

4. Your brother is a real charmer! I’ve got a feeling, that he never fights and can’t use strong/bad language at all!

5. His mother is a terrible niggard! I can’t stand it!

6. Their son is an unlucky fellow. He always tries to do his Best, but he never succeeds in life, because he can’t persist in his opinion.

7. Your daughter can neither wash nor cook! She is a worthless housekeeper! And I can’t stand it!

8. Can this nasty bore laugh? – Just imagine, but she can!

9. Your aunt never tidies. May be she can’t do it.

10. My husband is a sociable person. He can make friends.

Урок 7.

1. Do you often have headaches?

2. Why do you always eat running out of doors and never have dinner at home?

3. He always has a lot of good pupils: he has a nose for talented kids.

4. He is such a dear! But he always has his head in the clouds, so / that’s why he has problems with his relatives.

5. Do you know a thing or two of modern art? – Honestly speaking, I know very little.

6. Does she have a good ear for music? - In my opinion/to my mind/ it seems to me she has a very good ear for music, but unfortunately she isn’t interested in music at all.

7. He usually has a walk with his dog in the evenings.

8. It seems to me, that our president has his heart in the right place, but the situation in our country often gets worse after his decrees.

9. Has he got a car? – No, he hasn’t got a car, but he has a wonderful bike.

10. Just imagine! He has a cheek to use bad language at my lessons!

Урок 8.

A

1. I don’t usually drink coffee, but I’m drinking it at the moment.

2. I don’t usually eat ice cream, but I’m eating it now.

3. I don’t usually read cheap novels, but I’m reading at the moment.

4. I don’t usually quarrel with my parents, but I’m quarrelling now.

5. I don’t usually have dinner at home, but I’m having dinner at home at the moment.

6. I don’t usually read in the evenings, but I’m reading now.

7. He doesn’t usually watch horror-films, but he is sitting and watching it with great pleasure at the moment.

8. He never cribs at the lessons, for some reason but he is cribbing at the moment.

9. We always enjoy Parfenov’s programmes, but we are working at the moment and, unfortunately, aren’t watching his regular masterpiece.

10. For some reason he is smoking at the moment, but frankly speaking, he doesn’t smoke at all.

11. I’m reading a terrible novel now although I don’t usually read cheap novels.

12. We are eating ice-cream at the moment, we don’t usually eat ice-cream in such cold weather though.

13. Why are you looking at her with such hatred? You always treat your subordinates kindly enough, don’t you?

14. She is working at the moment, but to tell the truth it doesn’t happen very often.

15. Are you working now? – No, we aren’t. We seldom work after dinner.

B

1. Are you busy now?

2. Are you having dinner now?

3. Have you got money? / Have you got any money?

4. Can you see anything at the moment? / Do you see anything at the moment?

5. Do you want something?

6. Are you working at the moment?

7. Do you doubt at the moment?

8. What are you doing now?

9. What are you smelling? / What are you smelling now?

10. What are you reading at the moment?

11. What do you hear now?

12. I am not working; I’m having dinner at the moment.

13. I don’t understand you. What do you mean?

14. It smells bad, I can’t be here.

15. I usually go to work by car, but it’s warm now, there is a wonderful smell of spring in the air, so I am walking, talking rubbish with you/ chatting about small matters with you.

16. Do you want to taste this juice? Look! Your brother is tasting and it seems to me/to my mind/in my opinion he is enjoying it!

17. I’m phoning you from the hotel. I have a wonderful room and I’m having a very good time: I’m admiring sunset, smelling the flowers and waiting for you!

18. Are you having dinner now?

19. Why are you being so silly?

20. Your offer sounds delicious.

Урок 9.

1. Girl! Come here! Help me! I’m feeling bad.

2. I am not watching TV. Turn it off, please.

3. Don’t come up to the door! Somebody is standing there! I hear some sounds!

4. What are you doing? Why are you making so much noise? Turn off your tape-recorder immediately/ at once!

5. Don’t drink tap water! It is tasteless.

6. What is he doing there? Call him at once!

7. Children! Stop screaming! My head is splitting!

8. Stop call names! You are misbehaving! That’s the limit!

9. Don’t listen to her! She is always talking rubbish!

10. Stop moaning! You don’t usually do like this, do you? What’s going on?

11. Translate all the sentences into English quickly and don’t do silly mistakes while translating.

12. Look at me! Say “cheese”! Turn! Tidy your hair! Don’t bend! Draw yourself up! Do you hear me? That’s right! Good for you! You are looking fine now! But to tell the truth you usually look like a shabby chicken.

13. Stop quarrelling! Stop making a row in the presence of the strangers!

14. Calm down! There is nothing to worry about! Pull yourself together! You always can see daylight, can’t you?

15. I don’t know what’s going on! Don’t phone me! I don’t want to see you!

16. Don’t bother me! I’m working!

17. Leave her alone! Stop sticking to her!! Don’t bother her! She is working on her dissertation, you see!

18. Stop making these terrible sounds! I’m trying to concentrate but you are always distracting me!

19. You are always making me angry! I can’t live like this any more!

20. Why are you always looking at me like this? Stop it! I don’t like it!

Урок 10.

1. I often dance. I am dancing now. I have been dancing since morning.

2. Do I often dance? Am I dancing now? Have I been dancing since morning?

3. I don’t watch TV. I am not watching TV at the moment. I have not been watching TV since childhood.

4. I usually watch cartoons on Sundays. I’m watching cartoons with my children now. I have been watching cartoons for two hours.

5. What do you usually drink? What are you drinking now? What have you been drinking since morning?

6. Where do you have dinner every day? Where are you having dinner now? Why have you been having dinner for two hours?

7. Where do you work? Where are you working now? How long have you been working here?

8. He seldom plays alone. He is playing alone at the moment. He has been playing alone for 3 hours.

9. Why do you often look at me? Why are you looking at me so lightly? Why have you been looking at me without rest for several minutes?

10. Do you often write letters to your relatives? Are you writing a letter to your mum mow? Have you been writing letters since morning?

11. My talkative neighbour speaks on the phone too often. Is your husband speaking on the phone now? Why has this chatterbox been hanging on the phone at least for an hour?

12. How long have you been waiting for me?

13. How long has it been raining?

14. How long have you been working here?

15. How long has he been smoking?

Урок 11.

1. I eat every day. I am eating now. I have been eating since morning. I ate yesterday.

2. Do you eat every day? Are you eating now? Have you been eating since 12 o’clock? Did you eat yesterday?

3. She often drinks coffee. Is she drinking coffee now? She has been drinking coffee for a few years. She drank coffee 2 hours ago.

4. My mum cooks well. My mum is making dinner at the moment. My mum has been making dinner since she came from work. My mum didn’t make dinner yesterday.

5. They don’t usually have dinner together. They aren’t having dinner now. They haven’t been having dinner together for the whole year. They didn’t have dinner yesterday.

6. What do you usually do in the evenings? What are you doing now? What have you been doing for a good hour? What did you do yesterday?

7. He never reads. Is he reading now? He has been reading since morning. Did he read anything yesterday?

8. Why are you always looking at me like this? Why aren’t you looking at me now? How long have you been looking at me? Don’t look at me! He looked at me so coldly yesterday. Stop looking at me! I can’t look at people so lordly as she can.

9. Where did you see this film? Don’t bother me; I’m watching my favourite soap opera! Fancy that, she has been watching this soap opera for 5 years! We don’t usually watch TV on weekdays. Stop watching this rubbish! Did you watch soap operas in childhood?

10. Do you ever sleep? She has been sleeping just for a few minutes, please, don’t wake her up! Are you sleeping? I didn’t sleep last night, it was terrible. Don’t sleep! We are in a great hurry!

Урок 12.

1. She would bring flowers from the country. Yesterday she brought flowers from the country.

2. We would call names at the lessons. Why do children call names so often? My children never call names.

3. I never shout at my children. Do you shout at your children? Stop shouting at the children! Why did you shout at your children yesterday? You are always shouting at your children! She would shout at her children. Don’t shout at the children!

4. Why are you always snapping? Ill-mannered children always snap at the lessons. Hooligans would snap at the lessons.

5. She would sing something in a thin voice. Did you sing in childhood? Do you often sing? Stop singing! Just imagine! She has been singing since morning! I am not singing, I’m just sitting and looking through the window.

6. She would treat us in the evenings. Did they treat you yesterday? You never treat us.

7. Why are you always showing off? He would show off at the lessons in childhood. In my opinion, he has been showing off since childhood.

8. Can you bring up children? Nobody can bring up children, as it should be. Stop bringing me up at last / after all!

9. She would sob of offence. Do you often cry? You know, sometimes I cry on nothing. She has been crying for 2 hours. I can’t believe, that she has been crying since morning.

10. What are you looking for? How long have you been looking for him? Did you look for him yesterday? We would look for him for hours. I never look for my glasses.

Урок 13.

1. Are there many English books in your library?

2. There used to be a lot of English books in my library.

3. Is there a cinema in your street? – Yes, there is. But it used to be a theatre.

4. There is a little cloud in the sky.

5. There used to be a sofa in the kitchen.

6. There are 2 beds in the room.

7. There used to be a large number of people outdoors in the evenings.

8. He used to be a teacher and now he is a manager at the supermarket.

9. We used to go fishing when I was a child.

10. Did you use to go hiking when you lived in England?

Урок 14.

1. I show off every day. I’m showing off now. I have been showing off since morning. I showed off yesterday. I used to show off. I would show off in childhood. I could show off when mum was out. Yesterday I managed to show off at the lesson.

2. You usually lose your handkerchiefs. You are losing temper. You have been loosing your handkerchiefs since childhood. You lost your handkerchief yesterday. You used to lose your handkerchiefs. You would lose your handkerchiefs at school. You could lose everything when you lived with your granny and she never punished you. You were able to lose my favourite handkerchief!

3. On the whole, she gets on with people. She is getting on with her husband at the moment. She has been getting on with adults since her birth. She got on with her mother-in-low last summer. She used to get on with her mother-in-low. She would get on with everyone in our school. She could get on with everybody when she was in a good mood. Yesterday she managed to get on with a gang of hooligans.

Урок 15.

1. I always sail against the wind. I’m sailing against the wind at the moment. I have been sailing against the wind since birth. I sailed against the wind in youth. I would sail against the wind in youth. I used to sail against the wind, but things are different now. I was sailing against the wind while all people of my age were moving in a rut. I was sailing against the wind when suddenly I felt terribly tired.

2. You seldom write letters to your relatives. You are writing a letter – I can see. You have been writing a letter for 2 hours. You were writing a letter when I came to see you. You used to write letters very often, but now you are very busy at work. You wrote a letter to me yesterday. You were writing letters from 2 till 5 yesterday. You always wrote to me about your problems.

3. He usually plays the fool at the lessons. He is playing the fool at work now. He has been playing the fool from birth. He often played the fool in youth. He would play the fool in the country. He used to play the fool when he was a guest. He was playing the fool when we first saw him.

Урок 17.

1. Yesterday I ate an apple. I have eaten an apple today. When I was eating an apple yesterday, I felt dizzy.

2. You read his letter last week. You have just read his letter. Have you read his letter yet? Have you already read his letter?

3. He has never looked at me. He never looked at me in childhood. He wasn’t looking at me while I was blowing him kisses.

4. She wasn’t there yesterday. She hasn’t been there these days. She hasn’t been there since childhood. She wasn’t there when I got in/ came in. She hasn’t been there for ages.

5. Have you ever quarrelled with your parents? Did you ever quarrel with your parents in childhood?

6. I learn good poems by heart with great pleasure. I’ve just learnt by heart a marvellous poem. Stop learning by heart all sorts of rubbish! When I was learning this poem by heart, the door opened and my mum entered the room.

7. We’ve been in low water since New Year’s Day. We would be in low water in youth, but never suffered from it.

8. Fancy that! The boy has been out of hand!

9. Don’t listen to reason. It’s boring!

10. She has had a screw loose! She has quarrelled with all her acquaintances/friends!

Урок 18.

1. I know all. I have known him for ages. I know, that you are looking at me now. I knew him in childhood. I had known him before he came in our class.

2. We are close friends. We have been friends since childhood. We had been friends before we began to work in the same school. We were friends last year. We used to be friends.

3. To my mind, she is married. She has been married for 2 years. She was married, but she is divorced at the moment.

4. I have put on a lot of weight and I am on a diet now. I had put on weight before I got married. I put on weight last year. I put on weight, and then I went on a diet and grew thin.

5. She is in love with him. She has been in love with him since childhood. She had been in love with him before they became acquainted personally.

6. My grandpa has never travelled by air. My grandpa was very nervous during the flight, because he had never travelled by air before.

7. I met her a few days ago. She had just come back from Prague. She is at home. Go to see her, she has just come back from Prague.

8. She isn’t hungry, because she has just had breakfast. In general, she hardly ever has breakfast. She used to have breakfast when she was at school, but now she doesn’t have time for breakfast.

9. When we arrived at the cinema, the film had already begun. The film began after we had arrived at the cinema. We arrived at the cinema, took our seats, and the film began.

10. I had been at home by 5 o’clock. I was at home when the phone rang. I was at home while my friends were getting ready for the exams. I didn’t use to be at home very often, but I have turned into a real stay-at home: I am always at home in the evenings.

Урок 19.

A.

1. Hardly had I seen her when I fell in love.

2. Scarcely had I seen her when I was overhead and ears in love.

3. No sooner had I seen her then I was overhead and ears in love.

4. Hardly had you touched the pillow when you fell asleep immediately.

5. Scarcely had you touched the pillow when you dropped off to sleep

6. No sooner had you touched the pillow then you began to snore.

7. Hardly had he recovered from cold when he caught another infection.

8. No sooner had he recovered from cold then he began to ache again.

9. No sooner had they got married then they began to abuse by nothing.

10. Scarcely had they left Moscow when they felt themselves quieter.

B.

Hardly had I seen her when I lost the gift of speech. She was so beautiful! Perhaps, she was the most beautiful girl that I had ever seen .It was rumoured that she had lived in Paris before she moved to our town. When I saw her for the first time, she was looking out of the window and singing a funny song. I was in a great hurry, so I didn’t manage to take an all-round view. But in spite of this, scarcely had I seen her when I was overhead and ears in love. It can’t be helped. The next day I proposed to her. Strangely enough, but she agreed immediately. We have been married for 20 years and haven’t quarrelled so far. You can envy, can’t you?

Урок 20.

A

1. I am so exhausted because I have been going shopping.

2. You are such a slowcoach because you have been watching TV.

3. Why is she so wet? – Because she has been running in the rain.

4. What has he been doing? Why is he so irritated?

5. They are so pleased because they have been playing football.

B

1. I often invite my friends to our school parties. I’ve just invited her to our school party. Look what happened! When I was inviting her to our school party, her nasty friend came in and spoiled everything.

2. You look so stupid with this hair cut. You looked so stupid yesterday. You have been looking stupidly since birth.

3. We are in the same boat: we both shout at each other while quarrelling. Why are you so irritated? – Because I have been shouting at my brainless subordinates. Why are you so upset? – Because I haven’t controlled myself/I have lost temper and have shouted at my wife in spite of the fact that she is in the family way.

4. Did you phone your dad yesterday? Have you phoned your dad? When did you phone your dad? Were you phoning him from 3 till 4? Had you phoned him before you learnt /got to know the news? I am so pleased because I have phoned my dad. I am so upset because I have been speaking to my dad.

5. Just imagine/fancy that! Our neighbour has had a screw loose! He has gone down in history! He has thrown a bad egg at the minister!

Урок 21.

1. I had been explaining this rule to you for half a lesson before I gave you a test. I have already explained this rule to you. I had explained the rule before I gave a test. While I was explaining the rule, you were talking to each other.

2. You apologize to me every day. You apologized to me yesterday. You have apologized to me today. While you were apologizing to me, I felt pity. You used to apologize to me. You had been apologizing to me for a log time but I didn’t forgive/ excuse you for all that.

3. He always took care of his kin. He has taken care of everybody. He had taken care of his sister before she got married to the right person. He was taking care of me while you were playing the fool through inexperience.

Урок 22.

1. I don’t approve of his behaviour. I didn’t approve of his yesterday’s behaviour. I hadn’t approved of his behaviour before he explained the motive. I used to approve of his behaviour but I don’t like it any more. I’ll never approve of your option/choice.

2. All of us depend on our government. We always depended on them. We depended on them last year. We’ll depend on them next year. We used to depend on communists but things are different now.

3. She has never dreamt of being a filmstar. She dreamt of being a filmstar in childhood. She used to dream of being a filmstar. She often dreams of being rich and healthy. She would dream of being a top-model. After a while she will begin to dream of being a top-model.

Урок 23.

1. I like to go sightseeing in old towns. Yesterday when I was going sightseeing, I met my old friends. I usually go sightseeing on Saturdays. Well, tomorrow we are going sightseeing and the day after tomorrow we are becoming brown on the beach. We’ll see the sights of age-old Russian town Novgorod during our summer hike/walking tour. He is so thick-skinned! Once in a blue moon we see the sights of such a marvelous town but he doesn’t care! As a last resort, I’ll go sightseeing tomorrow after dinner. Children would feel exhausted after we had gone sightseeing during our summer walking tours.

2. I usually get up early. He has just got up. He got up 2 minutes ago. I had got up before I heard a noise. When are you getting up tomorrow? Will you get up in the end? Watch out, to my mind, she is getting up. I’ve never got up early. I never get up early. I’ll never get up early. When I was getting up, I felt dizzy.

3. Why do you always run away from me? Why are you running away from me? Why did you run away from me yesterday? Why were you running away from me while I was running after you at a top speed? Why did you use to run away from me? Why didn’t you run away from me in childhood? Why have you never run away from me? Why do you never run away from me?

Урок 24.

1. My husband never goes into details when he tells about his scientific work. I am not about to go into details of our private life, at any rate, for the time present.

2. He has already taken a decision. He is going to take a decision. He’ll take a decision tomorrow. He had taken a decision before he met the lawyer. He managed/was able to take the decision worthy of Solomon.

3. She dressed her daughter in red for carnival. My mummy always dresses me tastefully. She is going to dress her like a doll. My parents used to dress me. I’ll dress her in a couple of minutes. I’ll put it on in a couple of minutes.

Урок 25.

1. I’ll write a letter if I have time.

2. You'll phone me when you come back home from work.

3. She will give me her address when she finds the right flat.

4. We’ll come to see you when we are in London.

5. I won’t give you a treat you if you are late.

6. We’ll get wet if we go out.

7. She won’t talk to you until you apologize to her.

8. I’ll go straight home after I have done all the purchases/buying.

9. I’ll have a rest while my parents are out.

10. We’ll write down the title of the book in case we forget it.

11. I’ll draw the plan of the town in case it is lost.

12. He won’t be able to understand you if you don’t speak distinctly and slowly.

13. I’m going to find another job if the company doesn’t offer me a bigger salary.

14. I won’t go to the party if you go there.

15. He will do his homework as soon as he comes back home.

16. You can borrow the money providing that you give it back as soon as it is possible.

17. She will read every day providing that you give her the right books.

18. You won’t get in unless you are a member of the club.

19. I’ll buy you a present if you are a clear head.

20. We’ll go to sea when the weather is warmer.

Урок 26.

1. For a change I from time to time think before I take a decision to do something.

2. Don’t think about this crying shame.

3. I’ll have thought twice before I get this crazy idea out of my mind.

4. I used to think about it as a child.

5. Don’t bother me, I’m thinking.

6. I think, you should get this crazy idea out of your mind.

7. With all my heart I advise you to think about it.

8. Think about it at your convenience.

9. I’ve been thinking about this since morning and I’ve thought out nothing so far.

10. I’ve never thought about it.

11. I never think about it.

12. I’ll never think about it when I grow up.

13. I’ve just thought about you.

14. I was thinking about you when you phoned me.

15. I used to think about you very often.

16. Have you ever thought about such great success?

17. We would think together about the future of the mankind.

18. I’ll think about it when it stops raining.

19. I had been thinking about it for many years before I began to realize my idea.

20. I’m thinking about you all days long.

21. Nobody has ever thought about it.

22. Did you think about it yesterday?

23. Have you thought about it?

24. When will you think about it?

25. Are you going to think about your career?

26. Any man of worth from time to time thinks about his future.

27. Will you have thought over my proposal before I phone you?

28. He is a man of his word, I know it from experience, and he always thinks before he makes promises providing that he knows all the details of the matter.

29. Have you thought twice yet?

30. Have you already thought over my proposal?

Урок 27.

1. Year in, year out unlucky people apply for a job to their more successful friends.

2. You'll be sick to death if you apply for a job to the employment bureau.

3. In short, you’ll apply for a job when pigs fly.

4. When I applied for a job to him last year, he was overhead and ears in his business.

5. What is eating him? When this time yesterday I was applying for a job to him, he looked so furious but absolutely exhausted.

6. Have you applied for a job to anybody yet?

7. I know it at first hand that if you don’t apply to him for a job he will never offer it to you himself.

8. When my ship comes home, I won’t apply for a job to my friends at least twice a year.

9. Please, hold me by the hand while I’m applying for a job to my ex-husband tomorrow.

10. If he doesn’t apply for a job, he’ll follow his nose ever before sunset.

11. I’ve never applied for a job to my kin.

12. I used to apply for a job to him but I’ve missed the bus: he has lost everything himself.

13. Until you apply for a job, I won’t lend you money.

14. He applied for a job to me but I pretended to be ill.

15. After he had applied for a job to my dad, we dropped an acquaintance.

Урок 28.

1. In short, when I meet you for the second time, I’ll have been cycling for 2 hours.

2. He has been cycling since childhood.

3. My daughter was very tired when she met you, because she had been cycling for 2 hours.

4. Don’t hope against hope! He’ll never be able to cycle!

5. One of these days I’ll cycle to the country.

6. By trial and error we came to the conclusion that he had never cycled before.

7. I’ve already made up my mind: I’m cycling to school tomorrow it doesn’t come easy to me though.

8. I’ll have been cycling until my ship comes home.

9. He used to cycle to work but, to my mind, now he will cycle only when pigs fly.

10. She was going out of her way while she was cycling/while cycling, because by all means she wanted to demonstrate to everyone that she wasn’t born yesterday.

Урок 29.

Техника речи 1.

1. He said he had been ill the day before.

2. He said it was hot there.

3. He said he didn’t know what to say.

4. He said he was working very hard then.

5. He said he had been waiting for me since morning.

6. He said the dog had stolen meat.

7. He said he had done it the previous week.

8. He said he would do it better.

9. I invited him to go fishing at 6 o'clock in the morning but he said he would be sleeping that time.

10. He said he thought it would have stopped raining by the next morning.

11. She said that she would have been doing this work for 2 hours before I came.

12. He said you were running across the road when he saw you.

13. He said Einstein was born in 1779, but he made a mistake: Einstein was born in 1879.

14. Fancy that! He said he had forgotten everything he knew.

15. He told me he had forgotten everything he knew.

16. He asked me if I knew the way to the railway-station.

17. He asked me where I lived.

18. He said her parents were well.

19. She said she was going to learn to drive.

20. She said her brother had given up a job.

21. She said she couldn’t come to the party on Friday.

22. She said she wanted to go for a holiday but she didn’t know where to go.

23. She said she was going away for a few days and she would phone me when she came back.

24. He informed that they were going to get married the next month.

25. She said she had seen/she saw her ex-husband at the party and he was looking gloomy.

26. I thought you said that restaurant was cheap.

27. I thought you said that she wouldn’t come to see us.

28. I thought she said that she didn’t like her job.

29. I thought you said that you didn’t know English at all.

30. I thought you said that you had never eaten snails.

31. She asked me how old I was.

32. She wondered if I knew any foreign language.

33. She tried to find out how I was feeling.

34. She asked me where I had been.

35. She wondered when I had come back.

36. She asked me what I was doing.

37. She asked me where I lived.

38. She wondered why I had come back.

39. She asked me if I was glad to being back home.

40. She asked me if I could lend her some money.

41. She wondered if I had any plans for the future.

42. He asked me if there was a bank near there.

43. She informed she had no idea who had committed that insolent robbery.

44. You knew that she hadn’t got my letter.

45. You wondered when he had come back.

46. You found out what that word meant.

47. He had no idea if it was a long way from there to the airport.

48. He didn’t wonder if I was married.

49. He asked me why we met so seldom.

50. He asked me when I would get free after work.

Техника речи 2.

1. I’m hungry. She says she is hungry. She said she was hungry. She has just said she is hungry. She said she had been hungry before she went to work. She said she had been hungry since morning. She asked me if I was hungry. She asked me why I was hungry. She wondered if I had been hungry before I sat down to the table.

2. He is deep in the hole and he has no money to pay for his flat. He says he is deep in the hole and he has no money to pay for his flat. He confessed he was deep in the hole and had no money to pay for his flat. Today he has declared for everyone to hear that he is deep in the hole and has no money to pay for the flat. They wondered if he had any debts. They tried to find out if he had money to pay for the flat. They want to know why I have no money to pay for the flat. Do you want to know if I can pay for the flat? Did you want to find out if I could pay for the flat? Do you want to know when I will pay for the flat? He wondered if I was going to get clear of debts in the foreseeable future.

3. How long are you going to stay in our town? He wonders how long we are going to stay here. He tried to find out how long we were going to stay there. He wondered if we would have been there before it started raining. Do you want to know if we will have been here till Christmas? Why didn’t you try to find out how long they were going to stay there? Do you guess why he didn’t ask them how long they were going to stay there? He has just told he won’t be able to find out how long they are going to stay here. I’ve just found out how long they are going to stay here.

4. We can't afford to spend money like water. They say they can't afford to spend money like water. They confessed they couldn't afford to spend money like water. They complained that under the circumstances or, rather, in their parents’ presence they couldn’t afford to spend money like water. Are you pleased with the fact that you can spend money like water? She wondered if we were pleased with the fact that we could afford to spend money like water at last. I am not sure we can afford to spend money like water. Are you sure that you can afford to throw your money around?

5. She failed in exams to university. She said she had failed in exams to university. She confessed that had failed in exams to university ever the previous year/the year before. She is crying because she has failed in the exam. He wondered why she had failed in exams. Didn’t you wonder why she had failed in exams? Did she tell you that she had failed in exams? I don’t know when she will confess to her parents that she has failed in exams.

Урок 30.

1. I give English lessons every day. – I’m given English lessons every day.

2. I pay taxes honestly. – I’m never paid a salary in cash.

3. He usually tells fabulous stories. – He is usually told fabulous stories.

4. He seldom offers his help under the delicate circumstances. – He is often offered help.

5. I hardly ever give advice. – I’m often given advice how to act in some unforeseen situation.

6. I always invite a lot of people to my birthday party. – I am usually invited to blow round with great pleasure.

7. He never envies anybody but he is envied by everybody.

8. Unfortunately, we excuse our enemies too seldom. – We are always glad when we are excused.

9. I refuse to get this job. – I’m usually refused to get extra profit.

10. I allow you to stay up late. – I’m usually allowed to stay up late very seldom.

Урок 31.

1. Put it into your pipe and smoke it: you won’t set the Thames on fire that’s why you are asked at school so often. My heart usually sinks into my boots when I’m asked some tricky question, especially when I am not ready for the exam properly. A young hopeful! It’s the first time I’ve asked you such a tricky question on history and you have got out of a difficulty with great ease!

2. You are always making a mountain out of a molehill! Good ice cream is made of high-quality food. It isn’t usually done like this! These miniature toys are made of ivory. Is your ice cream made of liquid milk? He has just made such an ugly thing! We have been doing lessons since the very morning. If you make a mountain out of a molehill, we’ll live a cat and dog life. Just imagine: he told me if I made a mountain out of a molehill, we would live a cat and dog life!

3. That’s the heart of the matter! You are always openhearted that’s why you are tricked so often. I’ve never tricked anybody! I’ve been sitting on a powder keg since I understood that everyone was tricked there. Don’t let the grass grow under your feet and if you are tricked once again, leave our town immediately and go in search of a job somewhere to a proper place. If I’m tricked, then I’ll trick anybody with the greatest pleasure.

Урок 32.

1. I refuse point-blank to explain new material to you if you don’t bring yourselves to your senses. She has been explaining her favourite theorem to us for an hour and, to my mind, she is on the top of the world. He is at odds with math and even if everything is explained to him in detail, he can’t solve even a primary sum. Have you explained the main thing to her yet? Have you already explained the main thing to her? Have you already managed to explain the main thing to her? By the way, is everything always explained to you in detail?

2. It’s the first time; I’ve read an English book in the original. I have the title of the book I read last week with great pleasure on the tip of my tongue. In my opinion, she is from a different world: just imagine, she perceives nothing when it is read to her aloud; and one day when I asked her why it happened like that, she answered very roughly:” It’s out of your business!” – “ It serves you right! Never interfere in other people’s business if you aren’t asked.” How often English texts are read to you at the lessons? To my mind, she won’t read this book completely if you don’t make her do it. Have you ever read English writers in the original? Nothing is never read to us at English lessons and it is real careless work if call a spade a spade.

Урок 33.

A

1. I usually wait for the necessary bus for hours. – The necessary bus is usually waited for hours.

2. We often send him for beer. – He is usually sent for when somebody needs first aid/is in need of first aid.

3. I speak about it quite often. – It is often spoken about.

4. We always listen to classical music with great pleasure. – Classical music isn’t always listened to with great pleasure.

5. Sometimes I look at today’s young people with great surprise. – Rebellious young people are usually looked at with misunderstanding and dislike.

6. Teenagers usually look for something unrealizable. – She is often looked for before the beginning of the classes.

7. You are laughing at her for nothing. – Unfortunately, she is often laughed at.

8. I look after aged people; it’s my extra earnings. – Evidently, this child is looked after very well.

9. She referred me to you. – Ancient authors are often referred to in the lectures on history.

10. Our principal usually finds fault with his favourites. – For some reason, I’m always found fault with at physic lessons.

11. My daughter usually looks forward to the coming of heat. – The 14th of February and the 25th of December are usually looked forward to in all the Catholic countries.

12. I am glad that I can always rely on you in everything. – Sometimes kids are relied on more often than their disorganized parents.

13. The young seldom pay attention to weather. – The slightest change in weather is paid attention to in London.

14. We never live in the country-cottage in winter. – In winter the country-cottage is never lived in.

15. We drink out of old cups. – Old cups are drunk out of in our family.

B.

1. How long have you been looking for your keys? Why are you usually looked for in the attic? Will you have been looking for him before it starts raining? Had you looked for the keys in your own room before you phoned me?

2. He is never found fault with because he has showed himself as an excellent hard-worker. He said he would never find fault with me providing I learnt some poems by heart.

3. He said I was spoken about at every corner. I had been speaking about you for an hour before you entered the room.

4. Have you heard from him recently? Have you heard about him? I’ve never heard of him. Can you hear me?

5. I’ve been waiting for you for 15 minutes. Unfortunately, I am not waited for there. He said he wasn’t waited for there. I’ll be waiting for you at the cinema at 5 o’clock sharp.

Урок 34.

1. How often do you do your flat? He is just playing for time and isn’t going to tide up his room. It goes without saying that you are madly glad that your room is always done/is always tided up by your friends’ arrival / coming. The hall is being tided up now so you will be able to get in at any moment. He promised he would do his room sooner or later. I can’t understand why it is never tided up here; this mess just drives me wild and I confess I’m fed up with all this complete chaos.

2. Follow me! Oh, I’m scared, to my mind; I’m being followed closely. Don’t worry! It just seems to you: there are always so many people on a bus in the rush hour that any person can suppose that he is followed.

3. We are having a heart-to-heart talk, so please, don’t bother us. We are always being bothered here, it’s just unbearable! I feel that I always bother you. It looks as if you were born with a silver spoon in your mouth if you aren’t prevented to work on/at your book under present power.

Урок 35.

1. He has been duped since morning, but he is a knowing old bird – nobody has managed to cheat him. I’ve never cheated you, Honest to God! Why are you always cheated? He used to cheat me when I was child. I would cheat my trustful good-natured parents in childhood. You are always being cheated and you are out of the swim! If I am not cheated again, I’ll come to my senses and enter the University come rain or shine. He said he had been cheated since birth. Look here! You are being cheated at the moment!

2. I always feel ill at ease when I’m treated so hard. Help yourself, please, and be at your ease. She invited us to see her place, treated with some delicious food and then suggested spending the night at her place as it started raining cats and dogs. Shame on you, you’ve, probably, had a screw loose: you have been amused, treated and pampered since morning, but you behave yourself as if you don’t wear the trousers. She is being treated with black coffee at the moment.

3. She is often shown on TV because everybody thinks her the pink of perfection. Have you shown your usual trick yet? These tricks have been shown on TV since 7 o’clock in the evening. I will have been showing tricks till I am not asked to stop. How many years had you been showing tricks in the streets before you decided to try working at the circus? This film is shown on TV every Sunday. This film is being shown on TV at the moment. Is this film being shown on TV at the moment? Why do you show tricks so seldom? He promised he would show a trick as soon as he got free.

Урок 36.

1. There is no need to tip to staff: service is included in a bill. I remember that when we had dinner in this restaurant in summer, a tip was included in a bill. This diet includes all the necessary ingredients but not for love or money I keep to this diet because making salads will take me too much time and, as I’m always busy, I can’t permit it. Are you included in the list of invitees to the 20th anniversary of their wedding?

2. We were allowed to get into the holy of holies of this unique medieval castle, I mean, the library. Circumstances don’t allow me to live in a big way. Are you really allowed to stay up late? I didn’t know you were allowed to stay up late.

3. She was brought up in the spirit of obedience to their parents. If you aren’t brought severely, you’ll never grow wise. We try to bring up our children as well as possible. He is a strange child, neither fish nor good red herring; there is nothing special about him. I can’t imagine a human being who will be able to bring him up as a worthy and honest person. He always knows which side his bread is buttered, I wonder, who brought him up? Our parents were brought up in a very difficult historical period, in stagnation years, they were promised a land of milk and honey when the communism was in. No doubt, all that left an imprint on them, in a word; we can’t always understand each other.

4. He was looked after well in childhood, I hope; he pays back to his parents in the same coin. These kids are being looked after bad at the moment, and I can’t put up with it. Will you be able to look after my child while I am doing shopping? She promised she would look after my little-one while I was at the hairdresser’s. I have been looking after my neighbour’s kids since their parents were offered a part-time job.

5. I’ve been reading this book since Monday. This book has been read since Monday. This book is usually read before night. This book is being read at the moment, I can’t give it to you. What are you reading now? Is anything interesting being read to you at the courses? An extract from his article about the political situation in our country was read to us yesterday. If you have read this book by tomorrow, I’ll be able to give it back to the library on time. He asked me what I was reading then. He wondered if I had read any of ancient writers. He wonders if I’m going to have read this book by the end of the holiday. He swore he would have read that book before the light in the camp was turned off.

Урок 37.

1. When I was being awarded, I felt suddenly that I was ready to burst out crying.


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